IPv4 Addresses and Subnet Masks

The Format of an IPv4 Address An IPv4 address can be written in two ways: dotted decimal notation – 192.168.1.1 32-bit binary notation – 11000000.10101000.00000001.00000001 The address has 4 octets separated by periods and counted from let to right. There are three types of IPv4 addresses: a network address, a host address, and a broadcast..
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Network Troubleshooting PT Activity

Overview It is important to know how to troubleshoot network connectivity issues. How to configure PCs to add them to the network? What tools can you use from the command prompt to test connectivity and check your network address settings? In order to test your skills, I created a Packet Tracer 6.1 activity in which..
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Transport Layer

Transport Layer Overview The transport layer of both the OSI and TCP/IP models is very important. At this layer the data being prepared to be sent over the internet is broken into pieces called segments. The PDU or protocol data unit at this layer is called a segment. Their are two main protocols that function at this..
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Basic Network Configuration PT Activity

Overview This is a beginning network configuration activity in Packet Tracer 6.1. This activity is designed to challenge you with some basic Cisco IOS configurations using a Cisco 1941 router, two Cisco Catalyst 2960 switches, a TFTP server and two PCs. In this Packet Tracer activity you are asked to configure the following items: Step..
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Network Layer

Network Layer Overview The Network Layer is all about networks and routing packets to the correct network, it is the “Layer of The Internet” the layer of the IP protocol. The IP protocol is a connectionless protocol, it doesn’t care about setting up a connection prior to sending like TCP’s three way handshake, it just sends. IP is..
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Ethernet

Ethernet Overview Ethernet is an important topic in the Cisco CCNA because network administrators typically oversee LANs (local area networks), and pretty much all LANs today use some form of Ethernet, whether it be copper Fast Ethernet, or fiber optic Gigabit Ethernet, or wireless Ethernet. Ethernet became what it is today, because it was cheap..
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Data Link Layer

Overview The data link layer provides the upper layers access to the network media. It is responsible for controlling access to the media, encapsulating packets into appropriately sized frames for the media used, physical addressing, the exchange of frames between nodes on the local network, and error detection. Media Access Control Control Based Access –..
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Physical Layer

Overview The purpose of the Physical layer is to put digital bits on the media as encoded signals and to also receive encoded signals and turn them back into binary digits. Media at the Physical layer refers to either copper cables, fiber optic cables or wireless radio waves. Along with all the different types of..
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Communicating on a Network – Page 4

Cont. The TCP/IP Model is the implemented network protocol suite of the internet, the OSI Model is now considered a theoretical model because it was never caught on like TCP/IP but it has been a very influential model. Cisco uses both the OSI and the TCP/IP models to talk about how data is separated into..
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Communicating on a Network – Page 3

Cont. As the individual packets are encapsulated from the segmented data each layer adds information to the packet in whats called a header. This header is called a PDU orProtocol  Data Unit. The header or PDU has important information that is needed to get the packet from point A to point B. One important piece..
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Communicating on a Network – Page 2

Cont. Network communication does not happen without rules or protocols. In this class we will learn about the many protocols or rules that are necessary to send a message across the local area network as well as the internet. In order to have successful communication between people you have to follow social and cultural conventions,..
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Communicating on a Network – Page 1

Computer Networking Overview One of the challenges in learning the Cisco CCNA is learning how to navigate the massive amounts of jargon or lingo that is involved. Like the word, services, which can also be worded as applications, or programs, this can also be called processes if it is behind the scenes using Windows, and..
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Beginning Network Addressing PT Activity

Overview This is a beginning Packet Tracer 6.1 activity designed to get you familiar with working with Packet Tracer. Your goal in this Packet Tracer activity is to configure the following: 1.  Both PCs with IP addresses, subnet masks, and default gateways. 2.  Configure each switch with: a hostname, an IP address and subnet mask..
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Cisco IOS and CLI

Overview For the Cisco CCNA you are required to know how to configure Cisco routers and Cisco switches using the command line interface or CLI. A command line interface is a command driven user shell that allows the user to interface with the operating system. The command line interface or CLI is operated with just..
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