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ITC Chapter 2 Quiz Answers
Which two characteristics describe a worm? (Choose two.)
- hides in a dormant state until needed by an attacker
- executes when software is run on a computer
- travels to new computers without any intervention or knowledge of the user
- infects computers by attaching to software code
Worms are self-replicating pieces of software that consume bandwidth on a network as they propagate from system to system. They do not require a host application, unlike a virus. Viruses, on the other hand, carry executable malicious code which harms the target machine on which they reside.
In what way are zombies used in security attacks?
- They are maliciously formed code segments used to replace legitimate applications.
- They probe a group of machines for open ports to learn which services are running.
- They target specific individuals to gain corporate or personal information.
They are infected machines that carry out a DDoS attack.
Zombies are infected computers that make up a botnet. The zombies are used to deploy a distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack.
Which tool is used to provide a list of open ports on network devices?
The Nmap tool is a port scanner that is used to determine which ports are open on a particular network device. A port scanner is used before launching an attack.
Which type of attack allows an attacker to use a brute force approach?
- social engineering
- denial of service
- packet sniffing
Common ways used to crack Wi-Fi passwords include social engineering, brute-force attacks, and network sniffing.
What is the primary goal of a DoS attack?
- to facilitate access to external networks
- to prevent the target server from being able to handle additional requests
- to obtain all addresses in the address book within the server
to scan the data on the target server
A denial of service (DoS) attack attempts to overwhelm a system or process by sending large amounts of data or requests to the target. The goal is to keep the system so overwhelmed handling false requests that it is unable to respond to legitimate ones.
What is the purpose of a rootkit?
- to replicate itself independently of any other programs
- to gain privileged access to a device while concealing itself
- to deliver advertisements without user consent
to masquerade as a legitimate program
Malware can be classified as follows:
– Virus (self replicates by attaching to another program or file)
– Worm (replicates independently of another program)
– Trojan Horse (masquerades as a legitimate file or program)
– Rootkit (gains privileged access to a machine while concealing itself)
– Spyware (collects information from a target system)
– Adware (delivers advertisements with or without consent)
– Bot (waits for commands from the hacker)
– Ransomware (holds a computer system or data captive until payment is received)ent)
Which example illustrates how malware might be concealed?
- A hacker uses techniques to improve the ranking of a website so that users are redirected to a malicious site.
- An attack is launched against the public website of an online retailer with the objective of blocking its response to visitors.
- A botnet of zombies carry personal information back to the hacker.
An email is sent to the employees of an organization with an attachment that looks like an antivirus update, but the attachment actually consists of spyware.
An email attachment that appears as valid software but actually contains spyware shows how malware might be concealed. An attack to block access to a website is a DoS attack. A hacker uses search engine optimization (SEO) poisoning to improve the ranking of a website so that users are directed to a malicious site that hosts malware or uses social engineering methods to obtain information. A botnet of zombie computers is used to launch a DDoS attack.
What is the most common goal of search engine optimization (SEO) poisoning?
- to trick someone into installing malware or divulging personal information
- to build a botnet of zombies
- to overwhelm a network device with maliciously formed packets
to increase web traffic to malicious sites
A malicious user could create a SEO so that a malicious website appears higher in search results. The malicious website commonly contains malware or is used to obtain information via social engineering techniques.